JUTE

Jute occupies second place, next to cotton in the world's production of natural fibres. India and Bangladesh both have monopoly in jute industry as more than 85 % of the worlds Jute fibres are grown here.
Jute is also grown in Burma, Farmosa, China, Brazil and Nepal. India is the world's major exporter in jute clothes and materials.
Jute is obtained from the stems of two. plants grown mainly in the Indian subcontinent. The botanical name of the plants from which jute is obtained are Corchonus capsularis and Corchorus olitorius. In general appearance, both the plants are similar, haying long straight stems of about 2.5 cm in circumference.
The differences between the two species is in their fruits, heights.
C. capsularis yields 'white' jute whereas
C. olitorius yields Tossa and '

jute fibre

CULTIVATION


Low-lying, slightly acidic, alluvial soils in river complexes are particularly suited to jute growing, specially when these solids are flooded each year. After flooding, a deposit of silt is left on them, when the flood-waters recede.
These soils are slightly acidic in nature, which is helpful for the growth of the plant. The rainfall should be average 80 mm to 100 mm during the growth of the plant , 65 % t 90 % humidity and 25 ° C to 40 ° C is most beneficial to the crop. The cultivation areas suited for this atmosphere in India are West Bengal, Orissa, Assam and Bihar.


C.Capsularis is sown early in the month of February and March and C. Olitorius in April and May. Within two or three days, the seeds

PROPERTIES


Jute is The smallest unit of the commercial raw jute is known as 'reed. The length of se reeds varies from 1 meter to 4.5 meter, depending upon the grade. The denier varies from 6 to 50, but the average is around 18-20 denier. The diameter is usually 6-20 microns:

The fibres are polygonal in cross-section with a wide lumen. Jute is hygroscopic. At standard conditions, the regain is 13% The tensile strength of the fibres are 5-8 gm/den. The density of the fibre is 1.48 gm/cc.
Jute, like other cellulosic fibres, is not affected by heat. Prolonged heating only degrades the fibre.  Because of degradation, the colour changes from light brown to deep brown and then to black. Jute fibre undergoes tendering with the colour changes from yellow to brown or deep brown on exposure to light

Jute fibre is acidic in nature, and the pH of the aqueous extract various between 5.5 to 6.2 pH. So at ordinary or cold conditions, organic acids like oxalic acid or formic acid, mineral acids like sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid in dilute solutions have no action on jute fibre. Dilute acids brighten the fibre to some extent. With strong acids at boiling conditions, hydrocellulose is formed, which leads te higher loss in strength Dilute solution of alkalis has little effect on jute fibres but concentrated alkalis bring about profound swelling and loss in strength
Ordinary oxidizing agents have no action on jute. Only strong oxidizing agents will form oxycellulose. Reducing agents exert little influence on the fibre. Similarly, jute fiber has resistance to micro-organisms at ordinary conditions.

USES 

Jute is used for hessian, sacking, backing for rugs, webbing, carpets wall coverings, thread yarns, canvas, matting, hammocks and belting Nowadays, jute fibres are specially processed for clothing.






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