Source of synthetic fibre

Source of synthetic fibre

the main sources for formation of synthetic fibres are:
(1) Petroleum,
(2) Natural gas deposits and
(3) Coal.

Petroleum contains gaseous, liquid and solid hydrocarbons. These hydrocarbons, depending upon their molecular structure fall into three main classes, the paraffin’s, the naphthenes and the aromatic hydrocarbons Petroleum contains many different liquid and solid hydrocarbons of all the ee abovementioned classes in solutions as well as hydrocarbons of mixed structure. Also, petroleum field gases have greater, amount of gaseous hydrocarbons

 synthetic fibre
 Natural hydrocarbon gases consist of simplest paraffin called methane hydrocarbons, Natural gases occurring in sedimentary rocks also contain hydrocarbons.

A large amount of aromatic compounds are found in coal-tar, a by product in the manufacture of coal gas or coke. Benzene and its homologous are present in the light oil fraction of the coal tar.

 Crude naphtha and phenol are present in the middle oil fraction of coal tar Petroleum paraffin hydrocarbons, natural gas and coal tar yield different types of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons other intermediate hydrocarbons. 

These materials serve as raw materials for the production of synthetic fibres. At present synthetic fibres are more prominent than the natural fibres. The main advantages of synthetic fibres are as follows:

(a) High resistance to chemicals,
(b) High resistance to micro-organisams,
(c) Low flammability
(d) High elasticity and so high resistance to distortion and creasing,
(e) High resistance to abrasion.

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