Microscopic test of textile fibre

 Microscopic test of textile fibre 

Each textile fibre has its own distinctive structural shape and markings. So the fibre can be identified easily, when it is viewed through a microscope. 

The microscopic appearance of different fibres is shown in Fig.  

Microscopic test of textile fibre

Cotton 

cotton A flattened, collapsed, Flat, enlongated or bean spirally twisted tube with shaped with lumen as a line a rough surface, and or oval parallel to the frequent convolutions larger direction. 

that change directions. Cotton a more smoother tube Circular or elliptical with no smooth or less lumen.

 

B. Mercerised cotton more surface than cotton, with fewer or no convolutions. Poorly defined nodes Fibre bundles (20-30) with fibre present in bundles irregular outline. 


C. Fibre ex-" observable spiral elements hibit polygonal structure, with sharp angles, outline regular in shape with thick circular or elliptical lumen. with cross markings. 


D. Flax Presence markings and nodes. polygonal structure with Pointed tips and smooth sharp angles, small central outline is present. cross Fibre bundles. 

fibre exhibit lumen, no radical fissures. Fibres bundles or single, Polygonal with sharply cross-markings nodes present. Smooth central lumen. No radic al and pointed tips. 


E. Hemp and defined angles with small fissures. Broad ribbon like fibres, Flattened structure, radi- with cal fissures, enlongated and lumen and thick walls. 


F. Pamie variable width cross-markings longitudinal striations, rounded tips. Trregular ribbons, elliptical Triangular with rounded sometimes comers in pairs, cemented sometimes by silk gum. 


G. Gummed silk separate, twisted, no striations. Gum layer is continuous. jou Single, smooth, nearly Triangular cross-section structureless, occasion- with rounded comers. with flattened fibre, variable in diameter, 


H. Degummed silk Flat irregular ribbons Very enlongated triangles separate, normally separate, with 


I. Tussah silk sometimes sometimes twisted and rounded coners. with lingitudinal striations. Irregular and' roughly Oval to circular with varia- cylindrical, prominent tion in diameter. Medulla scale margins or flattened is concentric and variables plates. 


J. Wool in size. Uniform diameter with Roughly circular or irregu- striations running parallel lar in corss-section with separated or scalloped edges according to the 


K. Viscose to the fibre axis. process used.  Polynosic Uniform diameter without Circular cross-section with, any striations thick circular surface. 


L. Cuprammonium rayon Rod like appearance Round to beam shaped,r, cross-section. 


M. Cell acetate Unfirom in diameter along Roughly circular with ser- length with few striations rated or scalloped edges. parallel to fibre. The lobes are fewer than viscose. 


N. Nylon Very regular, rod like Circular cross-section. appearance. 


O. Triangular nylon Uniform in diameter along Triangluar or trilobal length with observable smooth cross section with parallel protrusion. rounded corners. Very regular, rod like Circular cross-section. structureless appearance. 


P. Polyester E Acrylic Straight and smooth. Circular, flat, bean shaped corss- section. 


Q. Polyproylene Uniform in diameter, rod Bright and circular cross- like, structureless section. appearance,  Glass Uniform, rod like, Bright and circular in structureless appearance. cross-section.

Garment Pattern, kinds of pattern

 Preparing a pattern

Patton is called Pattern in ordinary language. It is drafted on paper and cut accordingly, then it is called paper patron. Each part of the garment that is made is made on paper,

Says drafting. When cut from the lines created by that drafting, it becomes a draft pattern. Parts of this pattern are placed on the cloth in such a way that no part of the cloth goes in vain. In this way, the cloth is saved and the cloth is also cut to the right size. 

Similarly, by placing patterns on the printed or striped (lining) clothes, it can be seen how to cut the cloth, so that the print or stripes can be adjusted on the two, arms, neck, and folds. By doing this, the clothes look beautiful.

 These types of patterns are of greater benefit to tailoring trainees and women at home. There is no inconvenience in cutting their clothes. The cloth is used properly and the cloth does not go to waste.

Kinds of pattern

Patrons are used to making garments. It is not a mistake to cut clothes. Practitioners and skilled artisans take drafting on the cloth and cut it, but it is very important for new artisans and trainees to cut the pattern. Patterns are as follows

1. Simple pattern

Ordinary patrons make tailoring trainees and tailoring learners. He first practices with an ordinary patron. According to this measurement, the pattern is cut by drafting paper without sewing pressure.

 The dots of the waist and the side dort are cut out of it. Likewise, the dots on the backside remove the dots, take out the dignity, the front half of the back paper is cut. 

In making the pattern, neither the cloth is left for sewing pressure nor the button strip nor the bottom hem is taken. In this way, when cutting the cloth from the pattern, the cloth is left for pressing the stitch, button bandage, etc. 

This pattern is of simple design. The front and the tail portion should be written on the pattern by making a pattern. The open and closed sides of the edges are also taken. If the button bar is in front, then the back part is closed, if the button bar is in the back, then the front part is closed. 

The open and closed parts are kept in mind while keeping a patron on the cloth, otherwise, there may be a mistake in cutting the fabric. In addition, the outer lines of the pattern are stitch lines and the point lines left outside are of pressure. Dort cutting from patterns means that their marks can be made easily on the fabric.

(2) Block pattern

Patons that are used more often are kept properly, yet paper patterns are cut off due to marking on clothes. For this permanent patterns - which can be kept for a long time - are made. These patterns are made of thick cardboard, Shri ply, tin sheet, thick zinc sheet, etc., which do not deteriorate and are permanent. 

Coarse patterns are used for dozens of fabrics of the same size. Small readymade garments manufacturers make tin sheet patrons. Similarly, manufacturers of high-grade readymade garments prepare different patterns of metal share. Use them when needed. They do not have to make patrons again and again.

3. Ready-made pattern

A readymade pattern means that fabrics of different sizes are bought and made from the market. These patterns take more time and time to prepare themselves. Clothing is prepared in less time than readymade patrons. 

These patterns are of different sizes of different fabrics, women, and men who do not know how to do drafting, buy readymade patterns of different fabrics so that they make the clothes by them. Through these patterns, the cutting of the fabric is cured and the fabric is also not cut wrong. Patrons prove more important for such individuals.

4. Final paper pattern 

By the way, all patterns are final. Those whose drafting is good, their patterns are also final and the clothes made are also made. But the patterns used for the clothes of certain times or special people are final patterns. 

The clothes of those individuals are raw and seen from the trial to see if the clothes are in the right size and fit properly. The cloth is finalized by making the desired corrections in it. Whatever improvements are made are made in the clothes as well as in the customer pattern. There is no need to make any improvement in making the same garment in the future.

(5) Fancy pattern

Designs of new fashion clothes also come new. Patrons are made according to that. In these one-color garments, there is a change in women's arms and callers, and in men's pockets and callers' patterns. Very large collars and puffed arms are used in size, while all other parts are common. 

Additional patterns are made by drafting them. If the skirt is to be made of two colors, the top yoke is made by placing a colored pattern, while the paper pattern is first to cut in one quarter, then it is cut into two pieces from the yoke line. The cut on the underside of the yoke is cut by placing a pattern on the other color of the skirt. Now the cloth is cut properly by increasing the pressure and hem on all three sides.

(5) Grading pattern

These types of patterns are very big - big factories, mills, and manufacturers of readymade garments use more. These patterns are the same rather than many different measurements and marks of different measurements are made, so that the work of multiple patterns can be taken from the same pattern.

Benefits of Pattern

Not only does the fabric save by making patterns, but the design also looks beautiful. Clothing measures are good. There is no possibility of mistakes in them. There are the following benefits of making a pattern

1. Saving time - If multiple garments of the same size can be made, then the clothes can be cut from these patterns with the proper size in a short time. There is no need to create separate patterns for each garment. This saves a lot of time. Therefore, these types of patterns should be kept separately in a safe place with a mark, so that they can be used immediately when needed.

2. Find the defect - If there is any defect in making a pattern, then it can be corrected by placing it on the cloth and understanding it. If the cloth has been cut according to that pattern and then defects appear in the cloth, then it is easier to improve it. Patrons can also be repaired so that there is no fault of any kind in making clothes in the future.

3. Cheap layout - According to the measure, the cloth is cut by placing the patterns of all the parts on the cloth in such a way that the cloth should be kept in the least and not waste. In this way, the layout of the fabric becomes cheaper. The layout of the fabric without the pattern becomes more. Thus the layout is cheaper than the pattern.

4. Design making - The design of the pattern can be converted into a design by the customer. If the fabric is short for the design given by the customer, then you can also change it yourself, which is also given to the customer. By doing this, the custom design of the customer is made and he is happy, which is very important for tailoring.

5. Permanent record of pattern - Common size patterns should be kept by putting code numbers permanently so that they can be removed and used immediately when needed. Doing this saves time and labor.

6. Cutting of pattern - After drafting, the pattern of the paper is cut and it is seen what is missing. If a defect appears, it is corrected or a new pattern is made. If the cloth is cut in the same way and goes wrong, it is more difficult to repair it. If the wrong pattern has been made and the cloth is also cut accordingly, then that cloth can be improved.

Precautions in making patterns

The following precautions should be used while preparing patterns on paper

1. The pattern should be made of full scale on paper.

2. Drafting should be done with fine and clean lines.

3. The measurement should be checked before making drafting.

4. As far as possible, the pattern should be made on khaki paper and drafting should be done on its rough side.

5. Drafting is made according to the measurement. A measure should be checked again, only then drafting should be done.

6. If the measurement has resulted in incorrect lines forming the drafting, then they should be erased with rubber or cut with tailoring chalk.

7. Design of drafts, plates, balance marks, pockets, etc. should be put on all marks on the marks or knuckles.

8. The measurement diary at the time of drafting - in which the cloth measurements are written - should be kept in front, so that there is no mistake.

9. There should not be any pressure or bend in the pattern and this should be kept in mind while designing.

10. According to the design book, the design lines should be checked once again.

Garment Repairing by darning

Repairing by darning

Repairs by Draphu When a cloth or cloth is torn or gets tangled with a sharp object like a Kol, weaving is done directly and crosswise with the thread of the cloth or similar thread. For this purpose trimming ie small scissors, a Crewel needle, and the press is used. Darn is done as follows

1. Shape type darning

When the cloth cuts or bursts into a shape, whether it is long, wide, round, triangular, or square. It is dented in the same shape. Rafu is mixed with clothes. The thread is taken out of any part of the same cloth to make it darn. If the thread does not come out or there is any difficulty in removing the thread, then another thread of the same color can be taken. 

The stitch is first made by stitching the ends on either side of the torn part. The thread is then weaved by twisting the threads like a mat downwards and lifting one thread upwards, as shown in the figure. In this way, weaving on both sides of the thread in such a way that the torn or severed part is closed and the cloth becomes wearable. After darning, the press is done, so that the threads sit down.

darning

2. Slash darning - When a cloth or garment bursts or cuts from a sharp object, it can be erosion, long, oblique, triangular, or any other shape. The edge of the cut or torn place is strengthened by spooning. Then it is darned plain. Apart from this, the fishbone is stitched on both sides, this suppresses the torn part. The thread used in it is of the same color, due to which it does not even look ugly. These stitches are like the bones in a fish. The stitches are placed close by, then pressed on it.

3. Reinforce darning

When a part of the cloth is worn away with more use, then it is made stronger by the stitch of the thread by the stools of the Parasuj, so that the part will continue to work and the cloth will continue to be used.

4. Corner darning

This ruffle is done in those places, when the cloth is torn by getting tangled in a nail or fork or pointed object and the shape of that torn spot is type L, then there is corn duff. For this, the corner is properly mixed, then fishbone stitching is done on it. In addition, simple darning can also be done,

5. Single or oneway darning

In this way, the worn part of the fabric is darned. In a fabric whose fibers are not of the same type, the suturing stitches are used in the same direction. For this reason, it is called unilateral daring. The more darned part has become more filtered, that is, it has become much lighter, then the cloth is dented by placing a separate cloth under that part.

6. Machine darning

This is done with the darn machine. This darn is done on those clothes in which more cloth is cut from here to there. A piece of cloth similar to this cloth is placed under such a torn part and then jig-jig stitching is done by machine. This makes the weak part stronger. Jig - Jig stitching creates a special shape that looks good.

 Some precautions while darning

It is necessary to take some precautions while darning, otherwise the darned part starts to look bad. Following are the precautions

1. To make a darned one should use a darning needle, which is long and fine. Its hole is large, in which thick thread can also be applied.

 2. Thread should be used using or matching the same cloth. The thread can be removed from the fabric edge.

3. If the duffing part is 5 cm. If it is more than that, then it should be darned by applying other cloth towards the bottom.

4. After tarnishing the darned part, after pushing it in the direction, it should be pushed or patted by an object, so that its fibers are pressed. Then press on it, so that the darned part looks like the normal part.

5. While weeping, weft should be first filled with threads drawn from the warp, then weft should be woven with threads drawn from the weft. In this way, Dafu looks beautiful.

6. At the time of ruffle, when the weft is complete, even if there is a hole, it should be closed.

Cloth cutting , cloth cutting preparation

 Cloth cutting, Before cutting the fabric it is necessary to follow certain instructions; Because such instructions are seen before cutting the cloth, whether it is printed or not, whether it is striped, or where the plane is upright and upside down in the plate. The following instructions should be followed

(1) Premeasurement of cloths 

It is necessary to estimate the fabric, how much fabric will be used to make a garment. The difficulty occurs when the cloth is low and there is loss when it is over. For this reason, it is very important to forecast the clothes. Linear cloth or printed fabric is used more than the plain cloth used; Because some cloth is also used in vain to match a line or print.

(2) Cloth surface 

When the cloth comes to make the cloth, then it is properly seen to which side the surface of the cloth is straight and which side is inverted. The fabric layout is done only when one knows the opposite - straight. If there is a particular type of print fabric, in which it is difficult to know the straight surface of the fabric, then the decision is made by looking at the brightness of the fabric line. 

Precaution in cloth cutting

In the layered and checked fabric layout, a straight stripe or lining is kept from the neck point. If the lining is focused on the facing, then the lining or check will not be wrong. It is also necessary to match the check of the front part with the check of the back part, otherwise, the garment will not look beautiful. 

Care is also taken to keep the print of the cloth on one side in the printed fabric. The direction of the print is not kept in the opposite direction, otherwise, the reverse print spoils the cloth. In addition, garments of Pile fabrics are prepared. In this, the direction of Bur is taken care of. Burr's attitude is falling on one side and appears to be rising on the other side. 

When looking from both sides, the shed appears segregated, so if one side of the throat is towards the descending bur and the other side is facing the descending bur, then there is a difference in the shed on both sides and it will wear the cloth But it looks bad, so it is very important to take care of the attitude of the Bur when making the clothes of the Burd cloth.

(3) Marking on the cloth 

After printing the print and check off the cloth, after the design is done, the cloth is marked with the chalk after the reverse of the cloth. In normal clothing, in which the reverse is straight, the stitch is marked on it.

(4) Pattern, pledge, and turning 

 Patrons are made according to the size of the garment. Inlays and turning should not be kept with it. After marking the mark of the pattern on the cloth, the mark of inlays and turning should also be used or the fabric becomes smaller after the cloth is stitched. The cloth is cut from these inscribed signs.

(5) Designing

The pattern is matched to the design according to the customer's design. The design of the cloth is made according to the body of a man. If a fat person likes a frill design, do not refuse to make it.

(6) grainline 

The length of the cloth should be taken according to the grain line. If the grainline is towards the design of the fabric, the length can also be taken from the other direction. In this, the design of clothes is given more importance.

(7) Balance marks

Balance signs, along with other signs from the pattern, should also be made with chalk to maintain the balance of the garment. After cutting the clothes

(8) Use of scissors

Scissors about 30 cm It is taken long. Its edge is kept sharp. Its thick fruit (edge) is harvested by putting it on the table and putting four fingers in a large hole in its handle. 

The cloth should be cut with about 2/3 of the scissors facing forward. The speed of the cloth should be reduced while cutting the rounding. Harvesting should be straightforward.

Precaution in cloth cutting

When the fabric is drafted, a pattern is made, based on which the fabric is cut. Before cutting, think about the measurement of cloth, etc. The following precautions should be kept in mind before cutting

1. After setting the pattern on the cloth, it is fixed by depositing it in such a way that it does not move at all while cutting the cloth. The paper or cardboard is stitched with an Alpin, which fixes the cloth. If the pattern is of metal, then it is applied to the patron and cloth in some places with salutes, so that the cloth does not move. Harvesting at those locations should be done on the removal of patterns.

2. If there is any defect in drafting or abnormal manipulation can be done while cutting the cloth so that there is no error in the fitting and the fabric can be made of the right fitting.

3. While cutting the cloth, do not lift the cloth in your hand or shake it anymore, instead of cut one fold or several folds of cloth together by scaling the wide fruit of the scissors on the table and moving it with the hand.

4. Patrons are usually made according to the size of the cloth. There is no space left for stitching pressure. For this reason, marks on the fabric are also marked for pressure along with patterns of erosion. But while cutting the cloth, the cloth should be kept separately as per the requirement for sewing. This fabric is 6 mm on the folds and sides of the shirt. should keep. This cloth is about 12 mm in pants, jeans, etc. Or something more than that.

5. Inlining clothes, keep the lines of standing stance as far as possible in the front and back of the curtains and both arms, but in the collar, arrows, and cuffs, the cloth of the cross lines is applied.

6. Yoke, joints, bandages, etc. of clothing of fashion or two-color design must be left with extra fabric for sewing on both sides.

7. Before cutting the cloth with scissors, it must be made sure that the design of the folding, print, lining, etc. of all the fabric are properly fitted or not. In this way, the fabric is cut only after the fabric of the fabric, print, lining, etc. is decided, then there is no possibility of mistake in it.

8. Vomiting of cloth in some clothes - the difference between the straight surface is less. Before harvesting, it is decided which surface is straight and which vomits. So that the finished clothes do not look ugly.

9. If a small garment is to be cut from an old garment, first that cloth is completely stripped, then it is pressed and straightened. A torn or worn or worn part is removed from that cloth. The fabric is cut by marking the leftover fabric with a pattern and leaving stitching pressure.

10. After making patron lines on the fabric, along these lines, dash lines should also be made for sewing pressure. The cloth should be cut from the dashed line and not from the pattern mark.

Collars and type of collar

 Collars and type of collar. I am sharing a short idea about the collar & collar verities. Collars are called collars above the neck of a garment. In men's clothes, the collar is attached to some hard, which is seen to be standing. Bookworm is put on their collar. These change according to fashion and design. 

Collars and type of collar

The collars used in women's and girls' garments are somewhat different from those of men's callers. Frocks and furrows have large size collars, which are soft. 

In some shirts, the collar is fitted like a shirt. Now girls have started wearing shirts and T-shirts in the same way as boys, in which less wide bandage and less pointed collar are used. The following different types of collars are more popular

1. Round Collar)

 Women and children wear round collars. This collar is also decorated with piping or lacy. Its front and rear part are cut into two separate parts. Next to this - parts of the wipe are added while making the shoulder. The part of the throat is bent and the inside is piped or piping is applied. There are several types of shapes that can be given on the front of this collar.

2. Clown collar

This collar is of clowns. Many corners are drawn on this collar like a star. This collar looks beautiful in small children's clothes. In addition, it is also used in frocks and tops of young girls. A button-hinge or zip is attached to open the backside of this collar. Different colors in front and back appear more beautiful.

3. Flat collar

This caller is unlike other callers. This collar is fitted without a band. This collar is used on both round and V-shaped lugs. The fall of the side of this collar starts falling Is, while it remains standing till some back of shoulder joint. Anything can be put ahead of it. The exterior of such callers can be placed around, pointed, or erosive. This collar is called a flat type collar because it is flat near the shoulders.

4. Tennis collar

This collar is similar to a shirt collar. There is no special difference between a tennis collar and a shirt collar. The width of this collar is more than the shirt collar and the length of this collar is about one centimeter than the shirt collar. Is kept low. 

This collar is not on the front band. For this reason, a tie cannot be tied on this collar and a button is not placed on the top. In this collar, a band shirt is attached like a collar. The tie is not tied due to the length and width of the width. 

Most of these types of collars are worn in night suits, busherts, etc. This collar is also used in women's clothes. In this collar, the band is made by bending the lower part of the collar without putting it separately. Stitches are applied on the top. Figure 4 shows the tennis collar without a band,

5. Shirt collar

Shirt collars used in men's shuttles have been used for a long time. Whether it is a shirt worn within a coat or an office shirt, this collar is mostly used. The same collar is used in readymade shuts. Now, this collar is also being used in girls' clothes.

Stitches are attached. Trumpets are made with an inner collar. Then the outer joint of the corner is cut like the marks on one side. The collar is then reversed.

6. Straight collar

It is called a tennis collar, which is worn on women's clothes. It is a combination of tennis collar and shirt collar. This collar is applied to the bandage, but both ends of the bandage are attached together. The band attached to it is slightly less wide. It is slightly longer and less wide than the tennis collar.

7. Shawl collar

This collar is put in those clothes, in which one front of the cloth is a few cm on the other. Climbs, such as a gown. The front of the gown is applied to one screen by wrapping another over. In addition to the gown, the same collar is used in the ladies' housecoat. 

The big screen of the gown is made by turning. The second part is fitted with a small screen in the facing form. Laces or piping are placed on the edges of its curtains. Light embroidery can also be done.

8. Umbrella collar

It is made similar to a clown collar. A bandage is not put in it. Mostly this collar is used in women's skirts and girls' siege frocks. If the frock is kept high, the width of the collar is 7 to 12 cm. Is kept. It is decorated with frills, frills, etc.

9. Band with frill

This collar is mostly used in children's wear. This collar is made by putting lace, jhala on the bandage. Laces of about 2-2V2 times length are applied as a welt from the bandage. In addition to the encasement, pleats or plates can also be made. It is then stitched along the neck of the garment. Figure 9 shows a welt band and its draft. The width of the frill is 2-21 cm. Is not kept more than.

10. Rolled hand

It occurs as a collar band. Its width is about 8 cm. it occurs. Its length is N / 2-1 cm. It is carried on the neck. It is usually made with a diagonal cloth. If it is kept open from the back, the two parts overlap each other. 

A hook or button is attached to the open part. It is made beautiful and attractive by cutting different types of designs on its edges or by putting a frill.

11. Peter pan collar

This collar is usually placed in frocks for young children. It is wide at the front and thin at the back. It is similar to a round collar. It is cut into four parts and sewed into two parts. The middle point of the front throat is known and is kept together and stitched with raw stitches.

12. Sailor collar

This collar is used in the uniform of maritime soldiers. The front of this collar is similar to 'V' and all the back is round or chorus. The draft drawing of the cellar caller is applied the same.

13. One piece collar

In this collar, the front part which appears open is of one piece. There is no addition to it. For this reason, it is called One Piece Collar. This collar is used in children's wear and youngsters' t-shirts and bushtars. Its draft is shown in Figure 13.

14. Nehru cut band

 This is a simple shirt. Due to the wearing of a specific person, this Kurta has become popular in his name. It is made of two types. Banded and no banded. It is made from Khadi, Papalin, Boski silk, etc.

 There is no pressure. 2 cm only for turning The cloth is kept. Normal its width is 4 cm. It is, but it is not necessary. It can be reduced or increased. This band is also put in women's clothes in addition to men's. 

But the difference between the two is that in men's clothes the band is open at the front, in which buttons are attached. But in women's clothes, the band opens from the back. There are two types of pointed and rounded edges of the band.

Pocket, type of pocket's



Type of pocket

  1. Some type of pocket  is given bellow
  2. Pocket (pocket):
  3. Link - Pocket:
  4. Patch - Pocket:
  5. Cut-pocket:
  6. Flap - Pocket:
  7. Cross-pocket: 
Pocket (pocket):

Pockets are usually required on every class of clothing. Be it children's wear or women's or men's wear. Pocket has its own place on clothes. Many clothes are not made without pockets. Different types of pockets are placed on clothes. Now pay attention to the pockets of different forms.


Link - Pocket:

It is fitted within the joint in pocket pants or gusset design clothes. In this, the fabric is cut or braided separately in both buds for the convenience of the fabric.

Patch - Pocket:

This pocket is always placed separately on top of the cloth. Patch-pockets are also made in men's shirts, bushtars, and women's and children's costumes. It is advisable to sew the plain pocket with the lining first. This pocket is made both round and square. 

Special attention should be taken to the roundness in the round pocket. It is also necessary to have the same shape of corners in square pockets. Pocketing should always be done after marking the clothes correctly. 

It would be better to first deposit it on the clothes with the help of raw stitches and then attach the machine. Always put a patch-pocket on the striped and checked clothes, making it with the opposite stripe or check, it looks more beautiful and attractive.

Cut-pocket:

This pocket is also known as a slant pocket. It has oblique pockets. To make a cut-pocket, the place of the cloth should be ripped with the point of the scissors and make a pocket bag inward, with the help of a double elongated bandage. Its ends should be covered with trumpets or buckles.

Flap - Pocket:

Patch - The lid above the pocket is called a flap. A round flap is placed in a round-pocket and a square-flap is placed in a square-pocket. The flap is double folded and the pocket mouth is opened within this joint. 

The corners of the lower pocket should be sealed with strong stitches before placing the flap. After making sure, the corners of the pocket should also be fixed by depositing a flap on the pocket.

Cross-pocket:

Cross-pocket is placed in the neck of a neckerchief, skirt, or cropped frock. It has a slanted texture. Hence it is known as cross-pocket. It is also applied as 'cut-pocket' and 'patch-pocket'

Most of the 'pockets' are put in women's pants. In this pocket, a bag of the same shape is made within the pant. Patch-pocket 'is put on the clothes of girls and children as you know that' patch-pocket 'is placed on top of the clothes. In 'Cut-Pocket', a bag is inserted in the inner side like a link-pocket and no stitch is visible above. 

Should be trumped with a face in the cut-pocket. Similarly, a patch - pocket is made by stitching up. After adding a lining to the open part, after adding it, the tux should be reversed and the top should be decorated for decoration. 

If the cloth is thick, it should not be lining. Sloping piping should be applied over its open area or a fine bandage should be put. After placing the bakhiya on the edges of the outer circle, it should be deposited with the hand stitches above the pant. After that, the belt and side part should be pressed into the joint.

Cuff and type of cuff

 Cuffs:

In order to put the pointed cuffs in full sleeves in women's costumes, it must first be cut correctly and the lining should be carefully and cleanly applied on the garment. 

It is only after practice that complete cleansing occurs in the phlegm. In the same way, trumpet should be done by turning the strip towards the inner side. 


The bandage should be applied with light hands. Too much stretching puts force on the band and the trumping is not done properly. 

Sometimes a bakhiya is also applied to the inner bandage with a machine instead of a trumpet, and the same bakhiya is done while applying the bakhiya.

Type of cuff

It should be applied otherwise, it is more customary to have folded sleeves in the clothes of very ugly women and children. Bandhi is used for closed cuff or piping or decoration in the arm. A non-pleated arm, which means a plain band or piping, is placed on the plain arm.

A round cuff is applied to the sleeves of a coat with a round collar. It is not touted. The round 'turn kak' is always applied.

Apart from this, by adding elastic to the pleated arm, a sealing piece is made which becomes a tight side. On the second pleated arm, an open band is made of a less wide plain cuff, which is closed with the help of a hook or button. 

Similarly, a wide cuff with a button-bandage is also placed on the arm. All these arms are put in women's costumes only. Like women, Kapha is also put in the shirts of men and boys. 

The open part with the button-bar in these arms is closed by the button. In this, the open side of the sealing is folded with the help of a buckle. After this, it is cleanly mounted on the sleeve.


The Gent's shirt has two open buttons - the open section of the bandage, one the wideband, and the other the notched bandage. • Pointed Button - The bar is extended by twisting it upwards on the other side.

Additionally, a single shirt is applied over the open arm using a single bandage. In this, the bandage is applied by turning inward. It is very easy to make. It is applied in two ways.

The arms whose sealing is attached to the lining. Most of them have to be stitched for decoration. This stitch is attached to the edges, giving the impression of a separate bandage on the sealing.